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Also, if electric currents in the earth's core are responsible for the earth's magnetism, the heat generated by these currents 20,000 years ago would have dissolved the earth. Charles Darwin stated, in his Origin of Species, "The geological record is extremely imperfect and this fact will to a large extent explain why we do not find intermediate varieties, connecting together all the extinct and existing forms of life by the finest graduated steps. In science, a theory is much more than a simple explanatory idea.

You are a descendant of your parents but in a modified version; you are not exactly like them even though you came from a combination of their genes. But despite the controversy, evolution is, in fact, the core theme of biology and has been studied extensively enough to be called a theory.

The electrons are outside the nucleus in electron shells that are in different shapes at different distances from the nucleus. Ernest Rutherford shot subatomic particles at a very thin piece of gold.

Most of the particles went straight through the gold.

Furthermore, all protons are exactly the same, all neutrons are exactly the same, and all electrons are exactly the same.

Sideways periodic chart with electron shell numbers. Here is an outrageous thought: All the matter around you is made of atoms, and all atoms are made of only three types of subatomic particle, protons, electrons, and neutrons.

Electrons have a mass that is about 1/ Even more outrageous is the shape of the atoms with the three subatomic particles.

Protons and neutrons have almost exactly the same mass.

It was like shooting a rifle into a thin line of trees.

Some of the particles bounced off, some stuck inside, but the major portion of them passed through the gold foil.

The earth's magnetic field is decaying rapidly, at a constant (if not decreasing) rate.

At this rate, 8000 years ago the earth's magnetism would have equaled that of a magnetic star, a highly unlikely occurrence.

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