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When the writing on the reverse side of a sheet of paper in a bound ledger intersects with the writing on the front side of the sheet of paper, ink may be transferred from the front page onto an underlying page.Such transfers will occur only when inks are freshly applied. A new method that determines the age of a document in a less invasive way than other techniques and is also able to date documents up to five years old. In fact, the dating of documents is a key area in the field of forensic science.

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The “frosty” 6 contaminant is also not present on the Mark Evans image of the Shroud.15 As ‘the "frosty" coating is almost certainly a plant gum in the Raes sample’ 6 it is likely to be a plant gum in the Oxford sample.

The problems Determining the age of a document to find out whether it is authentic is a task influenced by the type of paper on which it has been written, the pressure of the stroke -the amount of ink deposited when the writing was done- or even the technique used.

Until now, document dating methods have been able to indicate whether the writing was relatively new (less than 90 days) or older (over two years), yet this chronological accuracy is insufficient in certain cases, above all in judicial ones.

Carbon dating, used since 1948, is currently the main method of testing artifacts for age.

My objective through this essay is to disprove the accuracy of the Carbon 14 dating method. It works on the principle that the carbon 14-C, is radioactive. This is balanced by the fact that 14-C is constantly produced in atmospheric reactions.

This paper came out of an online conversation with Joe Marino and Paul Maloney, with additional input from Bill Meacham, Professor Emanuela Marinelli and Barrie Schwortz.

I am deeply indebted to them for sharing their knowledge, wisdom and advice.

Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. For example, if the questioned document’s date precedes the manufacturing date for the ink used to sign the document, it is established that the document could not have been signed on the date it bears. Such intra-comparisons of inks may reveal that the questioned entries were not written contemporaneously with the other entries in the file (document). – The examination’s purpose is to assess whether the use of various inks on the document(s) fits a pattern that is either consistent with the dates appearing on the document(s) or indicates preparation "at one time" (during a short period of time). Paper folds – It is often possible to determine whether an ink line that intersects a paper fold was written before or after the paper was folded.

Offset marks – When two pieces of paper are pressed together, marks such as writing (and printing) may be transferred from one to another.

When an animal dies it is taken out of the carbon cycle.

After this, the proportion of 14-C to 12-C steadily declines. 141, page 636, August 16, 1963) showed the shell from a living mollusk to be dead for 3,000 years!

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